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Cattle and poultry feed making machine

Updated: Nov 6, 2020

India is agriculture based country which shows great growth in cattle feed industry but also on other hand there is lot of residual food wastage's and high priced cattle feed. This project shows the simple approach to conversion of residual food waste to cattle feed. The method aims to collection of organic solid waste from city collected from juice centers, restaurants and houses to process plant thereby converting this waste to useful cattle food.




Problem Statement


India is the second largest producer of the fruits (81.285 million tonnes) and vegetables (162.19 million tonnes) in the world, has been bestowed with wide range of climate and physio-geographical conditions. Fruits and vegetables account for the largest portion of that wastage. 18% India's fruit and vegetables production valued at Rs. 13300 crore is wasted annually. About 30 % of the fruits and vegetables grown in India get wasted annually due to lack of proper cold storage infrastructure which is a cause of concern. In the State, Maharashtra, has a potential for processing up to one lakh metric tonnes but there is no infrastructure. Almost 30 % of the fruits and vegetables produced by farmers is wasted following lack of food processing units across Maharashtra. At every District’s, established Agriculture Produce Management Center (APMC), after selling the products by farmers and vendors, large amount of vegetables get wasted due to transportation, storage and physical changes in it. Sometimes in farm at the time of harvesting waste is generated. The amount of waste generated is also depends on season change.

Due to inefficient infrastructure not all this waste gets dumped in dumpsites daily. Accumulating of this waste increase the transmission of insects, rats and animals releasing bad odor and also increases health problems in that area. At this stage, managing this organic biomass is necessary. This market waste fruits and vegetables is very attractive and alternative cheap raw material can be used as sustainable energy resource for viable products. There are many methods for managing the wet/organic waste such as landfill, dumping, composting, feed in digester of bio gas. But in all this methods, whole waste cannot be get utilized which is again get accumulating increases the chances of environmental pollution. This methods required more landfill which caused infertility in soil of existing lands and it is not get totally free of odor.


Objectives:

1. To develop an integrated and environmentally organic waste management system that ensures the adequate collection and treatment with sustainable methods, in tourist areas with close agricultural activity.

2. Implementation of technologically simple farm composting plants (essentially in the agricultural holdings situated near the production areas in the partners’ territories), with small and adequate scales. Possibility of giving an added value to the agricultural activity through the availability of an additional source of income for managing the treatment

3. Enhancement of local waste management services and organization at all levels.

4. Improvement of the local environment and economy, especially enhancing agricultural and recycling sectors, improving at the same time those in the country.

5. Adaptation and creation of waste management employment and improvement of the working conditions

6. Active networks enhancing local management expertise for all the involved stakeholders, based on exchanging cross-border knowledge, solving doubts and problems and ensuring the application of good practices and correct results (project advisory and monitoring tasks).

7. Contribution to the overall sustainability of the area

8. Improvement of overall waste management in the area

9. Increased recycling levels and reduction of organic waste in landfills

10. Obtaining a quality cattle food.


Working of process unit


Waste collection –

Fruit waste like peel, pith, rind are recognized as essential components of our diets as it contains many vital nutrients and non nutrient compounds, which play an important in well being. The main objective was to conduct the survey among fruit juice outlets and venders to calculate the waste generated. Ten fruit juice outlets of narhe city were selected for the study. Mosambi, pine apple, watermelon and mango were most popular fruits consumed in form of juice and were available at all the outlets surveyed.

The total waste generated per day from each shop was in the range of 8 to 35 kg and on an average 20 kg from each outlet which goes waste as animal feed and contributing to environmental pollution. The part of fruits which is thrown as waste also comprises of edible part which contains natural antioxidants, chemicals, fiber, polyphenols, flavonoids and also possesses antimicrobial activity which is useful for animals and human also the waste is collected in separate categorized form such waste of watermelon, orange, pine apple, mosambi. Waste vegetable from market and mess can be collected and used for making cattle feed


Mixer and Grinder

All the dehydrated material is fed into the mixer grinder where impact of high rotational blade breaks down material into fine particles required piratical size can be controlled by blade design and rotation. There is a two pole stator with stator windings. Stator seems to have electromagnets. The rotor is made of laminated steel which has slots, with armature winding's. The rotor ends (the shaft) are connected to commutators. The rotor seems to be identical to that of slip ring induction motor (at least in this mixer). The four blade rotor is used to grind and mix the material. Waste the material contains fruit peels of watermelon, mango oranges etc. food waste mainly obtained from juice centers. This raw material is then grinded and mixed in grinder and mixer. The time required for grinding and mixing is mainly depends on final slurry size.



Grinder turning mechanism

This mechanism uses 12V dc motor and worm and worm wheel. Motor is actuated through switch from switch board. Rotation of motor is converted into angular displacement of mixer and grinder. Mixer and grinder is rotated through required angle and slurry inside it is poured in slurry pipe. Slurry pipe carries the slurry inside dough making machine were it is mixed with additive material and water.

Worm and worm wheel- PVC

Worm and worm wheel- plastic molded


Dough making machine

Slurry from grinder and mixer is feeded to dough making machine. Here liquid slurry and additives are added to obtain dry mixture of slurry and additives which will further processed into cattle feed. Dough making machine uses two blade rotor for kneading of dough. Kneading makes the dough soft and elastic. Rotor mixes the slurry and additive material thoroughly with the rotation of rotor.

Machine rating : 350W

Power supply : 220V-240V, 50 Hz AC.


Additive material feed mechanism

This mechanism uses hopper with hopper feed plate which is controlled by motor with rack and pinion. 12 V DC motor is used. Pinion is attached to the shaft of motor this pinion meshes with rack teeth. The rack is attached to feed plate which covers bottom opening of hopper. Angular rotation of motor is converted into horizontal reciprocation of feed plate through rack and pinion. The flow of additive material is adjusted by variable opening of hopper which is achieved by feed plate. The displacement of feed plate is controlled through motor rotation. Motor is operated through a switch which control forward and backward rotation.


Additive material

it is typical mixture of various residual flours, it is consist of wheat flour, bajara flour, corn flour and powder of dried chapatis, this additive powder or material serves as drying medium, for slurry. When slurry is poured in dough making machine additive material is added in required quantity. Additive material helps formation of dough. Also in order to prevent the cattle feed from bacteria, and for preservation purpose additive powder contains food preservation like sodium benzoate and sodium nitrite. This food preservative helps to preserve cattle feed for long period of time.


Hopper and Feed screw

Dough obtained from dough making machine is feeded into hopper where it is poured over the inlet of feed screw. Rotation of feed screw is control through motor. The rotation of motor controlled via switch connected in switch board motor provides low rotation and high toque. The continuous rotation of feed screw pushes the dough towards die. The feed screw enclosed inside a metal cylinder. Because of continuous force exerted on material it is extruded through die and pallets are obtained.


Conveyor

The conveyor consist of head pulley operated through 12 V DC motor and tail pulley is driven. Belt surrounding head and tail pulleys carries the pallets of cattle feed from die towards dryer


Sun-drying


During sun-drying procedure pallets are uniformly spread in flat based container which is placed on ground in open sky. To prevent pallets from dust glass shield is placed over the container. In sun drying moisture contained of pallets reduced. As sun drying relies on sun hence this process takes 10 to 15 days for the pallets get completely dried.



FINAL MACHINE

Project coordinator - Akashay Shende

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